Volume 3, Issue 4 | August 2016
Image | Stomach

Rare Subepithelial Mass Diagnosed as Gastric Splenosis via EUS-FNA

Download PDF

Saleh Elwir, MD1, Beenu Thakral, MD2, Brooke Glessing, MD1, Elizabeth Courville, MD3, and Shawn Mallery, MD1

1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN
2Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
3Department of Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

ACG Case Rep J 2016;3(4):e101. http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/crj.2016.74. Published online: August 17, 2016.

Case Report

A 20-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a gastric subepithelial mass, noted incidentally on an esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed for evaluation of dyspepsia (Figure 1). She had a past medical history of Diamond-Blackfan syndrome status post bone marrow transplant, and recurrent acute pancreatitis status post total pancreatectomy with splenectomy 4 years before presentation. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed the presence of a 21 x 18-mm round, hypoechoic, and homogenous mass in the cardia, with an echogenicity reminiscent of splenic tissue (Figure 2). No other foci of ectopic splenic tissue were found on cross-sectional imaging. Endosonographic borders were well defined, and the lesion appeared to be localized within the muscularis propria without extragastric extension. Cytology smears and hematoxylin and eosin stains fine-needle aspiration biopsies showed a population of polymorphous small lymphocytes, interspersed granulocytes, and frequent hemosiderin laden macrophages (Figure 3). This population was intimately associated with small vessels, highlighted by CD34 and CD8 immunohistochemical stains (Figure 4). Coexpression of CD34 and CD8 is consistent with splenic sinusoids.1

CG-CGCR160043F001

Figure 1. Endoscopic appearance of subepithelial mass.

CG-CGCR160043F002

Figure 2. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed the presence of a 21 x 18-mm round, hypoechoic, and homogenous mass in the cardia, with an echogenicity reminiscent of splenic tissue.

Subepithelial gastric masses are occasionally seen during endoscopy and often require examination by EUS.2 Splenosis can present as a subepithelial mass; however, given inability to differentiate from other subepithelial masses, surgery is often performed.3,4 Ectopic splenic tissue can be found as 2 distinct forms: accessory spleens and splenosis. Accessory spleens are congenital, whereas splenosis is an acquired phenomenon in which splenic implants grow in ectopic locations.3,4,5 It occurs in patients after traumatic rupture of the spleen or a splenectomy.5 The ectopic splenic tissue in splenosis is thought to have normal splenic function.5 Howell-Jolly bodies and other abnormal red cells that are seen in patients who have undergone splenectomy may not be present on peripheral smear.5

CG-CGCR160043F003

Figure 3. (A) Cytology smears show polymorphous small lymphocytes, granulocytes, and frequent hemosiderin laden macrophages (20x, pap stain). (B) Cell block preparation shows small lymphocytic population intimately associated with many sinusoidal vessels (20x, hematoxylin and eosin).

Gastric splenosis has been described in isolated case reports.2-4,6 These were either noted incidentally at time of endoscopy2 or associated with gastrointestinal bleeding.4,6 Given inability to differentiate from other subepithelial masses, such as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor,3,4 surgery is often performed. Given the absence of additional ectopic splenic tissue foci on imaging, splenosis was not high on the differential diagnosis before EUS. Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration (FNA) pathology confirmed diagnosis of a gastric splenule, and the patient was spared from surgical resection. Gastric splenosis should be considered as a possible etiology for subepithelial masses in patients with prior splenic trauma or surgery, particularly if their peripheral blood smear does not show Howell-Jolly bodies.4,5

CG-CGCR160043F004

Figure 4. (A) CD34 (20x) and (B) CD8 (40x) immunostains highlight the lining sinusoidal cells, coexpression of which is consistent with splenic sinusoids.


Disclosures

Author contributions: S. Elwir collected data, wrote the manuscript, and is the article guarantor. B. Thakral collected data and edited the manuscript. B. Glessing and E. Courville edited the manuscript. S. Mallery wrote and edited the manuscript.

Financial disclosure: None to report.

Informed consent was obtained for this case report.

Correspondence: Saleh Elwir, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Minnesota, 406 Harvard St. SE, MMC 36, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (elwir001@umn.edu).

Received September 7, 2015; Accepted January 28, 2016


References

  1. Tatsas AD, Owens CL, Siddiqui MT, et al. Fine-needle aspiration of intrapancreatic accessory spleen: Cytomorphologic features and differential diagnosis. Cancer Cytopathol. 2012;120(4):261–8. Article | PubMed
  2. Deutsch JC, Sandhu IS, Lawrence SP. Splenosis presenting as an ulcerated gastric mass: Endoscopic and endoscopic ultrasonographic imaging. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1999;28(3):266–7. PubMed
  3. Yang JB, Liu DL. Gastric fundus splenosis mimicking stromal tumor. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2015;107(6):392–3. PubMed
  4. Yang K, Chen XZ, Liu J, et al. Splenosis in gastric wall mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Endoscopy. 2013;45(suppl 2):E82–3. Article | PubMed
  5. Fremont RD, Rice TW. Splenosis: A review. South Med J. 2007;100(6):589–93. Article | PubMed
  6. Arroja B, Almeida N, Macedo CR, et al. Gastric splenosis: A rare cause of digestive bleeding. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2011;103(7):377–8. PubMed

CC Icon

© 2016 Elwir et al. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.